Destroyer. Symbolically, it refers to the Bible that was the source of the cutting truths
that Wycliff introduced before the Great Reformation.
or detestable. Representing those who are detestable in spirit at the end of the
thing or things abhorred or detested. In Rev. 17:4, 5, it refers to the resultant
wickedness of Catholicisms union with the kings of earth. In Rev. 21:27 it refers to
the performance or wished for performance of evil that would be detestable at the end of
the Millennium. The mass was designated the abomination that maketh desolate, and the use
of this word suggests an attempted abrogation of the once-for-all sacrifice of Christ.
who lays charge to another. As used in Rev. 12:10 it would refer to papacys
counterfeit claim that civil Rome, which had controlled it, was finally ejected from
meddling in ecclesiastical affairs. The claim of Rev. 12:10 is a counterfeit of the true
reign of Christ when Satan shall be bound. The antichrist in this
claim thought it had started the reign of Christ and had succeeded in casting Satan out of
the spiritual realm.
union. As used in Rev. 2:22 if refers to the illicit union of the kings and rulers of
earth with the unfaithful church—Jezebel.
of the evil spirits or powers of spiritual control.
place of sacrifice. In Rev. 8:3 the golden altar represents Christs sacrificing
condition as new creature. In Rev. 9:13 and 11:1 it represents the church with our Lord in
the sacrificing condition. In Rev. 8:5 the brazen altar is referred to and would carry the
thought of Christs sacrifice of his humanity. In Rev. 16:7 it refers to the church
under Christs headship in the human sacrificing condition. In Rev. 6:9 the brazen
altar represents the church in its human sacrificing condition. Being under the altar
would mean the sacrifice was complete in the ashes under the altar. Rev. 14:18 also refers
to the brazen altar representing the church in it human sacrificing condition.
is steadfast, or so be it. As a noun it refers to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
or a message.
from against the papa or against the pope. Representing the Lords faithful who were
against the domination of the rising pope.
forth ones. In Rev. 2:2 it refers to those who falsely claimed to be of the sent forth
ones of the Lord. All other references would be to the 12 designated apostles of the Lord.
Symbolically it refers to the Christ in glory.
of Megiddo. The great battles of Israel were fought here and it carries in symbol the
decisive final battle in which Gods vengeance is meted out. See Volume IV, 1912
Foreword, Page v.
used in Rev. 9:16 the nominal Protestant Church. In Rev. 19:14 the true church on the
other side the veil and on this side the veil. In that it is plural it would have to be
divided into at least two groups and in that they are in "fine linen" they would
be a righteous class. In Rev. 19:19, the true church on this side the veil; the only part
of the Lords army they could hope to defeat as a force (or forces). The Lords
"army" wages war as the "sword" of his "mouth" against the
"beast," "false prophet," and "kings of the earth," and are
instrumental in overthrowing them (Rev. 19:15).
"muddy" or "boggy"—Diaglott, Appendix. Depicting the general
nature of the churchs path throughout her earthly career.
BALAAM—(Doctrine of) the prophet Balaam kept company with the enemies of Gods
people for personal gain, and showed Balak how to entice Israel into sin so they would
lose favor with God. The "doctrine of Balaam" would be teaching in the church
that made teaching error for personal gain proper and justified illicit union with the
civil powers—sanctioning spiritual idolatry.
gate of El [or God], a take off from Babel which was to be the gate of God, but God
confused the tongues there and it became synonymous with confusion (Gen. 11:9). There was
a literal Babylon, but it had fallen hundreds of years before the prophetic utterances
concerning Babylon were given. Hence it symbolically is used to picture an unholy city or
government of sin and confusion which inescapably identifies the Roman Catholic Church. It
also would secondarily include the Protestant sects.
in measuring fine weights. It would indicate scarcity, when foods were sparingly
apportioned with them—rationing.
that would nurture character development in the church. It was more plentiful than
"wheat" and would mean that Gods people had more of these truths than
doctrinal truths to bring them the true knowledge of God. Barley might include
consecration and Christian life teachings, etc. that were more plentiful in the church.
between opposing forces of right and wrong and those enlisted under these banners.
as a symbol of the Medo-Persian Empire (Dan 7:5). This seems to aptly describe Cyrus
method of taking Babylon by, as it were, sticking his claws under the city walls and
seizing it. This same grasping tendency was characteristic of papacy.
therion) A combination of civil and religious power. In
Daniel beasts represented the four universal empires. In Revelation this symbol is
employed to represent the papacy, Church-state of England and Ireland, and the Roman
peoples government (supporting the "woman" or church in Rev. 13:1-7;
In Revelation 13:14-17 mention is made of an "image to
the beast" representing the World Council of Churches. It is vitalized and made a
"beast" (combination of civil and religious power) when the Church-state of
England joins it. In Rev. 18:13 the word "beast" is from the Greek word
which has reference to beasts of burden. It would carry the thought of servitude and
sacrifice as taught by church leaders.
zoa, living ones). These living ones represent the four attributes of God—justice,
power, love and wisdom. In Rev. 4:7 these attributes are designated by similarities to
The lion, long known as the king of beasts, an animal of
ferocity but yet known to kill only when hungry, very aptly stands as a symbol of justice.
Justice is spoken of as the habitation of his throne. As long as justice is satisfied, it
is at rest.
Gods power was pictured by a calf, or better
translated, a young bullock. The bullock was used as a beast of burden to provide power in
Gods love is portrayed in the figure of a man, the
most noble of Gods earthly creation, endowed with the greatest capacity to love.
The farseeing eagle illustrates Gods wisdom. Rev. 4:8
and Isa. 6:2 seem to parallel each other. In Isaiah each seraphim had 6 wings: 2 wings
were used to cover the face, picturing the concealment of Gods person from the
world. Two wings were used to cover the feet, picturing the concealment of Gods
operations among men. Two wings were used to fly with, which would picture the carrying
forth of Gods plan of the ages.
of in Rev. 2:22, which would be a sick bed, a place of affliction.
of assimilation and as it relates to the truth the mind would be that place of
assimilation. The truth will cause suffering after it is assimilated.
unclean and hateful bird representing the malcontents of society, who from the time of
Babylons rejection have filtered into the nominal church. We have seen criminals and
people of questionable character professing religious affiliation with the churches as
well as people with political ideologies.
claims or assertions.
life, shed blood would picture life poured out or death. When blood is left after death,
it separates into clot and serum. The clot putrefies quickly, whereas the serum is more
easily preserved. The clot would picture radicals and extremists, as against the
liberals pictured in the serum. It may also picture the spiritual life-giving truths,
which are the lifeblood of the saints.
found in Rev. 11:8, it refers to the discredited testimony of the Old and New Testaments.
class in servitude.
it refers to the book of Revelation as in Rev. 1:11. The "book" or scroll of
Rev. 5:1, "written within and on the backside, sealed with seven seals" refers
to the Divine Plan of the Ages and particularly the secret prophetic features of that
In Rev. 10:9 a "little book" is mentioned which
represents the harvest message of truth given to the saints at this end of the age. There
are also the "books" of judgment of Rev. 20:12, which represent the Bible which
is the standard of judgment.
We observe that the "books" of judgment are
separate from the "book of life" referred to in Rev. 20:12, 15. The "book
of life" is a record wherein those found worthy of everlasting life are listed. It
need not be a written record, but may be in the mind of God or of Christ.
instrument of conquest and destruction. As it is used by the rider on the "white
horse" of Revelation 6:2, it would refer to the evil devices and teachings used by
the early church in their conquest for power.
Rev. 1:15 and 2:18 the Greek word has the thought of white copper. This would show the
"feet" members of Christ with fiery experiences. The "idols" of Rev.
9:20 include one of plain brass (copper) representing possibly something human or earthly.
Rev. 18:12 mentions "vessels" of "brass" (copper) which refers to
human nature or perfect humanity.
called the "breastplate of righteousness" in Eph. 6:14. Rev. 9:17 likens the
breastplates to fire; jacinth—the bluish flame of burning sulfur; and sulfur or
brimstone. This combination would symbolize an impregnable righteousness. Rev. 9:9 speaks
of "breastplates of iron" which again denotes the strength and protectiveness of
used in Rev. 15:6 it would mean divine servitude was the primary point and objective of
these "seven angels." The "breasts" would be the central and most
vital part and represents the principal objective.
espoused or wedded companion of Christ, the church.
prospective or wedded husband of the church, Jesus Christ.
and guiding element. A bridled "horse" would be a controlled or guided doctrine
of complete destruction.
likens one of the four "living ones" to a calf or bullock. This animal was used
to provide power in yesteryear. Hence, it would identify this attribute of God as being
dwelling place of the ancient worthies.
Gods Word: "Thy Word is a lamp unto my feet."
Represents the church or the seven stages of the church which serves as receptacles of
Gods Word and of his holy Spirit. In Rev. 11:4 it represents the Old and New
men or leaders of society or of military forces.
imprisonment or restraint.
CENSER (Golden)—New Creature sacrifices offered in harmony with the Divine will.
device to be used on Satan. The truth would be effective as a "chain."
apostate "man of sin" (papacy) in its incipient stages (Rev. 12:5).
descendants or spiritual followers of a certain person, group or people.
called out class or classes of professed followers of Christ. The seven Asian cities
designate the period of its existence (Rev. 1:11). There were seven periods in the one
churchs experience corresponding to these seven cities.
or trouble, depending on the vantage point. Those below see only dark clouds of
trouble. Those seated with Christ in the heavenly see the white clouds of glory.
fruitage of the "vine of the earth"—Babylon.
of the face, which could signify favor or disfavor according to the expression.
rulership and a "reward" for victory or a wreath of victory—as in "crown
of life." The Greek word, stephanos, is used to signify wreath of victory or
honor of office. The "twenty-four elders" possess such crowns. When authority or
rulership is meant the Greek word diadema, is used.
and superstitious teachings. As used in Rev. 16:10 it implies recognition of the great
darkness in papacy.
is the literal offspring or descendant of David. He is also the root or father of David in
the regeneration. The name means "beloved" and beautifully applies to The
Christ, the Beloved of God.
used as a figure of speech, as in the expression "day and night," it would carry
the thought of constancy. The context would figure into its meaning. When speaking of the
"Lords Day," it would refer to the Millennial Day. It also is used to
denote light and the Gospel light. It is used to denote a general period of time as well
as, in some instances, a literal year. "Are there not twelve hours in the day?"
an absence of life in a literal or spiritual sense. It is used to denote the
"dead" in consecration. It denotes those under condemnation or without a
standing of life. It is used literally, in some cases, as well to indicate an impotent or
powerless condition in other cases.
non-existence or destruction. Adamic death is temporary, whereas second death would be
everlasting. Sometimes it refers to a change of position or death to a condition. A dying
DELICACIES—The Greek has the thought of hardness or wantonness.
places or places of subterfuge.
to Satan and the Roman Empire under his leadership. His cohorts, the evil spirits, share
this title in the King James Version.
who, as it were, bite and devour others.
entrance into a condition.
Roman Empire viewed as a civil power under Satans control. Sometimes it is
identified as Satan himself.
used as "casting dust" on the head, it denotes sorrow and grief.
far-seeing wisdom or of the Bible itself.
of the sunrise. It is used to identify The Christ as the rising illuminary of earth. Also,
as Judah, Issachar and Zebulon were stationed at the East of the tabernacle, so these
natural tribes will be situated in the East, and those entering the Holy City through the
three gates in the East will enter these tribes. The tribes each represent certain traits
or character designations.
Melchisedec order of the priesthood. When used in the singular it refers to an individual
of that priesthood, as in Rev. 5:5, and "elder" identifies "One of the
tribes of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven
seals thereof." In this prophecy the elder identifying Jesus, who stems from Judah,
and who is the Root of David, is the Apostle Paul. (See Heb. 7:14; 11:32, 39, 40.)
green jewel. Green being a symbol of everlasting life.
or desirable because it was the capital of Asia Minor. While other cities sank into
insignificance, Ephesus rose into power more and more. It was the first or desirable city.
This is emblematic of the early church, which is pictured by Ephesus. It, too, was
"first" and "desirable" in Gods estimation. Paul was the
"angel" of this period from the beginning to CE 70.
was the natural river that ran through Babylon. It very aptly pictures the people who
support antitypical Babylon, the false church systems.
of wisdom or the ability to see far. Also understanding, discernment, wise messages.
of the characteristics of the objects referred to; presence; favor.
or figurative lack of sustenance.
living members of the body of Christ on this side the veil in contact with society. To
fall at ones feet represents homage and respect. Placing one foot on the sea and one
on the land is indicative of taking control. Standing up on the feet would indicate a rise
to a condition of vitality, support.
Reference to the "feet of a bear" would suggest
clawing powers. Being "clothed with a garment down to the foot" would indicate a
general concealment of the body members of Christ, except those living members who are in
contact with society.
co-laborer (in Christ).
as in doctrine or illicit union of church and state.
refining process and is used also for illumination.
first results of the redemptive work of Christ which is the development of the church of
amount of truths, which could be along many lines.
or position of prominence.
union of church and state.
supports, as the twelve Apostles of the Lamb.
of religious teaching.
and breadth being equal, a symbol of perfection.
gradual development of character or the yield or results of anything. Fruits may represent
foods that are appetizing or desirable.
measurement equivalent to 606 feet and 9 inches or 10/87 of a mile. The 1200 furlongs of
Rev. 14:20 (Sinaitic, MSS) are emblematic of the distance between Bozrah and
Jezreel. Both these cities are referred to prophetically.
Bozrah is where the winepress was trodden and Jezreel is
where Jezebel was slain (Isa. 63:1-6; 2 Kings 9:30-37). The 12,000 furlongs of Rev. 21:16
There are 12 lines to a cube. This city being in the form
of a cube would have 12 lines also or 12 tribes. There are 12,000 Israelites to a tribe.
Hence 12 times 12,000 would equal 144,000 members to the New Jerusalem, the number of the
true church (Rev. 14:1; 7:4-8).
covering for concealment purposes as used in Rev. 1:13. When used in plural, it represents
the covering of righteousness, the justification we have through Christ.
the twelve tribes of Israel and particularly the leaders of these tribes, the ancient
worthies. These gates were of pearls. Pearls are made through irritation within an oyster.
So the true pearls were developed through trial, or an irritation made beautiful
believers in Christ.
of servitude from the custom of girding oneself preparatory to doing service.
of Gods people at the end of the Millennial age. In that Gog is mentioned before
Magog it may imply that the Gog class are the leaders in the rebellion.
good news of Gods Word, particularly that part associated with the judgments of God
that will be shed in the earth causing all to worship God.
of the vine of the earth: evil, selfishness, denominationalism, bigotry, etc.
people of society with inclinations toward higher things, spirituality, right-heartedness,
yet non-Christian. Grass that is not green would be common people who are not Christians.
in hardened form dropped in the storms of trouble.
it is not literal, it represents justification or wisdom or venerableness.
of power or of responsibility, as when lifting up the hand in an oath and in requiring
something upon "her hand" (Rev. 19:2). Also used to indicate possession when the
object is in the hand, "palms in their hands" (Rev. 7:9). Used in the phrase
"at hand" it means near.
in illicit union with civil powers or earthly headship or with the world.
who make the sweet sound of music of Gods Word. This can be done through harmonizing
Gods Word and letting its melody ring forth.
which is to be gathered, wheat or true Christians, gathered into the Gospel garner.
our Lord Jesus and his authority. (Rev. 1:14) Governing authority as in Rev. 4:4. When it
refers to the heads of beasts it represents governments. "Heads" of the
"locusts" represent priests or teachers. (Rev. 9:7) It would also represent
priests or teachers in the "heads" of the "horses" and
"lions" and "serpents" of Rev. 9:17, 19. Governing authority of our
Lord as used in Rev. 10:1.
As used in Rev. 12:1 it would refer to the oversight and
direction received by the early church. Casting dust on their "heads" is a
symbol of mourning. In Rev. 17:9 the heads represent the seven successive empires of Rome
from Constantine until Hitler. These rulers ruled over Europe and not just a nation.
of thought, willpower and affection.
effects from enlightenment.
or death condition.
in perfection or set apart to Gods service.
or a teaching.
guiding or directing the doctrines or teachings.
there not twelve hours in the day" (John 11:9)? According to Jesus we can walk in the
light of a "twelve hour" day. To make Revelation consistent we have defined the
"hour" as covering the whole harvest period. However, this does not mean there
are no other possible definitions that need airing.
Bro. Russell applied the "hour of temptation" to
the testings of this whole harvest time. This may not preclude a very special shorter test
at some given future time. If Rev. 18:8 means that her plagues come in "one day
[literal year], death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with
fire," then one-twelfth of that would be "one hour"
18:17, 19), or in
one literal month Babylon would be pillaged and destroyed.
Likewise, Rev. 17:12, 13 speaking of "10 kings"
who receive "power as kings one hour with the beast" and give their "power
and strength unto the [scarlet beast]." This could also mean one-twelfth of a year or
only one-month before this system fails and the "King of kings" stands over them
We gave the general interpretation of one hour as being the
whole harvest time and explained that the "scarlet beast" would receive power during
this hour. However, we must be prepared for a more specific fulfillment and a rather
sudden termination of things once the saints are sealed. "A short work will the Lord
make upon the earth" (Rom. 9:28).
There may be other possibilities which we encourage the
Lords people to think and pray about for a better understanding. We only know in
part and may speak in part until God provides a fuller understanding.
of spiritual food.
who worship someone or something other than the true and living God.
objects of worship.
of Jesus as viewed from the divine standpoint.
INHABITERS (INHABITANTS)—Those who occupy a particular place or condition.
professed people of God. The true Church of God composed of twelve tribes. While the
language is direct in establishing that there will be 12 tribes, yet the names of the
tribes may be suggestive of certain characteristics.
Juda may represent the harmonious, popular, friendly and
adaptable type of character. Reuben represents optimistic, intense, promotional and
talented character. Gad represents a strong-will characteristic. Asher, perhaps sociable
and peaceable qualities. Nepthalim, most likely cheerful and brilliant qualities.
Manasses, restful and poised character qualities. Simeon,
expressive and emotional qualities. Levi represents a studious and instructive type of
character. Issachar, harmonious, enduring, genius and executive qualities.
Zebulon, mild and placid characteristics. Joseph,
harmonious, enduring, genius and executive qualities. Benjamin, devoted and reverential
characteristics. These conclusions are based on the accumulation of statements concerning
each of these tribe originators as compared with the 12 known basic characteristics of
in Rev. 9:17 it would be related to the breastplate (justification of righteousness) which
would be as the reddish-yellow jacinth which is the breastplate of faith and love (1Thess.
5:8; Rev. 21:20). Please see "stones."
diamond, a most precious and glorious stone descriptive of the glory of divinity. For Rev.
21:19 see "stones."
government and particularly the church (Rev. 3:12;
21:2, 9, 10).
Israelites or people of God (Rev. 2:9).
the Roman Catholic Church.
in the flesh in the harvest time who are "in the Spirit" on "the
Lords Millennial day."
open or shut, hence a symbol of authority.
to cease to a condition.
nationalities or varieties of people.
of Satan, the dominion of Christ and God, or just a dominion of some group, depending on
potentates or rulers; the Heavenly Potentate (our Lord Jesus); all men will ultimately be
kings or rulers in the kingdom. As used in Rev. 9:11 it would refer to the Word of God.
The "kings" represented by the "heads" of the beast of Rev. 17 are the
predominant succession of rulers of the "beast." Also the church of Christ are
referred to as "kings."
and Savior, Jesus Christ.
LAMPS (OF FIRE)—The seven promises to the overcomers of the seven churches.
seventh and last stage of the Gospel church covering from CE 1878 to the end of harvest at
this end of the age. The word means tried or judged people, Diaglott, App., just
people. Pastor Charles Taze Russell was undoubtedly the "angel" of this period.
or testimony of the church that shall be as a balm or medicine for healing the world.
in a simile as a literal leopard. A leopard is spotted and hence the papacy is camouflaged
as it seeks its prey.
who teach untruth or make false claims.
deception or misrepresentation of truth.
given to the "image of the beast" which energizes and quickens it into action
(Rev. 13:15). Spiritual vitality. Soul or sentient being. State of animation and
of mind and heart.
imputed or actual "righteousness (judicial sentence) of the saints" (Rev. 19:8).
it refers to "one of the four living ones" (Rev. 4:7), it represents the
attribute of Gods justice. Rev. 13:2 speaks of papacy with a mouth like a
"lion" which reminds us of the kingdom of Babylon represented by a lion, with
Nebuchadnezzar speaking great things. In Rev. 9:8, 17, the "lions" would refer
to the rending criticism of justice. In Rev. 5:5 the words "the Lion" are
omitted in Sinaitic MSS.
of Gods people. Literally land of Gog.
of immortality when referring to the "hidden manna."
designation of a slave or servant.
nominal or true. In Rev. 4:7 the "face as a man" would represent the attribute
of love, as this is one of the outstanding qualities of man. Sometimes it is used
literally and sometimes it is supplied by translators.
Rev. 18:12-16. The things in which Babylon deals and commercializes. All of a counterfeit
or polluted nature.
Gold—divinity; silver—spirit nature; precious
stones—character adornment; pearls—character development through trial; fine
linen—righteousness; purple—royalty; silk—nature transformation (through baptism and
actual death); scarlet—justification; thyine wood—everlasting life (which is a savor of
life unto life; ivory—standing or condition of the saints; precious wood—noble humanity;
brass—perfect humanity; iron—strong authority; cinnamon—understanding; spice (amomum) not
mentioned in King James Version—knowledge; odours (incense)—perfect sacrifice; ointments
(myrrh)—wisdom; frankincense—praise; wine—vicarious sacrifice of Christ; oil—the holy
Spirit; fine flour—worship; wheat—true discipleship; beasts—sacrificial service;
sheep—docility; horses—church dogmas; chariots—organizations; slaves (bodies)—humanity;
souls of men—the lives of Christians.
and preachers of Babylon.
or manifestation of unusual power.
symbolic years or if literal one-twelfth of a year.
Old Testament or Mosaic light of the Law.
Moses. The Song of Moses is recorded in Deut. 32 and is a song of Gods dealings and
judgments with his people as well as the enemies of Gods people. The song of Moses
and the Lamb is briefly outlined in Rev. 15:3-5.
Roman Catholic Church from which developed other harlots religious systems.
of communication and consumption.
comparatively large number of individuals.
of fellowmen, character assassin.
or character assassinations.
who make harmony with Gods Word.
concealed or hidden knowledge. There is the hidden knowledge of Gods Church which is
to be joined with Jesus and also the hidden knowledge of the great and iniquitous
counterfeit "man of sin"—Papacy.
being unjustified or in a condition of sin. As used in Rev. 17:16 it refers to the
exposing and uncovering of the false churchs sin and also pictures her humiliation
reputation, and also may imply character qualifications, designation and authority.
NICOLAITANES—Conquerors of the people, those who lord it over Gods heritage referred
to as being in the church.
if used in the expression "day and night." When used with the moon it has
reference to the Law age. Evil or spiritual darkness.
of the four divisions of society. It is reasonably concluded that in the New Jerusalem,
natural Israel will be divided into 12 tribes and hence certain tribes would be
represented in the North—Levi, Asher, Naphtali (Num. 2:3-29). We believe that Levi
figure. All numbers are literal in Revelation except fractions.
of truth or its counterfeit.
of victory, the palm was given to a winner in ancient sport.
and being girded about the breast would show it was in Jesus heart to do Gods
will and service.
of God, which would represent the New World to come, "wherein dwelleth righteousness."
third part mentioned in Rev. 8 represents the right-hearted people in their respective
positions in life and their viewpoint of the symbolic sun, moon and stars. Rev. 9:15
refers to "third part of men" which represents the right-hearted class.
The "fourth part" of Rev. 6:8 represents a
geographical division and no doubt refers to Europe. In Rev. 12:4 the "third
part" refers to the loyal-hearted in the church that would not succumb to civil rule
in religious matters.
When in Rev. 16:19, Babylon is divided into three parts, we
understand it means a separation. In that Babylon was composed of Catholic, Protestant and
civil rule, it would seem when the appointed time comes the religious-political set-up
would be broken and it will be a case of every man for himself, the "beast,"
"false prophet" and "dragon" separate themselves.
Also used to
represent a portion.
literal barren island where the Apostle John in exile received the Revelation of Jesus
Christ. This might be similar to the church class separated from Babylon in this harvest
time receiving an understanding of this great prophecy.
development through trial. This was true of the Ancient Worthies who are pictured as the
"twelve gates" of New Jerusalem through whom entrance into the "twelve
tribes" of Israel may be gained. Those who gain entrance must meet the character
standards of the city. In Rev. 18:12, it is mentioned among Babylons merchandise.
Babylon dealt in this matter of character through trial and they also venerated the
Ancient Worthies and claimed them as "saints."
days wages. As used in Rev. 6:6 it conveys the thought of spiritual famine.
third period in the churchs experience, a period of earthly elevation into power and
prominence, Diaglott, App., heighth. Arius was the "angel" covering from
CE 313-1160. The Greek word is related to the word for citadel.
PHILADELPHIA—The sixth period in the churchs experience, the time of the Reformation.
Martin Luther was the "angel" of this period from CE 1518-1878. The word means
according to the Diaglott, App., love of a brother. It is the only period not
rebuked by the Lord.
who make joyful music in spiritual things.
afflictions that result from the outpouring of judgment truths against Babylon. Generally
this would apply to those afflictions stemming from the Lords Word and judgments.
PRESENCE (Rev. 14:10)—Has the thought of in the view of, or witnessed by.
every instance it refers to office of the church in glory. In this capacity they receive
the consecrations of the people and instruct them in the way of the Lord.
prophecy or unfolding of events to come also a public proclamation or exposition.
Rev. 11:10 it represents the Old and New Testaments and in other instances it represents
those who publicly preached the Word.
in all regions of the earth.
apostate church claiming to be ruling companion of the Lord. A false and empty claim and
the context shows the Lord looks on her not as his queen, but as a harlot.
actual righteousness of the saints.
of spiritual truths.
of a covenant.
the kidneys that were considered the seat of affection.
Protestants after 1799.
RESURRECTION—Used only in reference to the resurrection of the church. The word means a restanding which implies a standing of life.
or benefit—as used it has a literal meaning.
literally meaning just.
RIGHTEOUSNESS—Justice or the state of being righteous based on judicial decision.
also channels of religious teaching.
and stable institutions and fortresses in society.
rule; a standard of measurement of Gods Word.
workers or church workers.
In Rev. 20:9 it most likely refers to the ancient worthies.
fifth period, Diaglott, App., prince of joy. It is a relatively short period
covering only 150 years from CE 1378-1518-28 with John Wycliff as its "angel."
It was just prior to the great Reformation and the work of this period was
"strengthen the things that remain."
SARDINE (SARDIUS)—A red stone approaching white in color, which would remind one of a healthy
flesh color—hence a symbol of, love (Rev. 4:3).
fallen and debased Lucifer, the archenemy of God and his people. Also the title of the
civil government of the Roman Empire as used in Rev. 12:9.
of justification or of atoning faculties. As used with regard to the "scarlet"
colored "beast," it would be a symbol of sin.
in a simile.
4:6 refers to an eternal fixity of purity. Rev. 15:2 refers to the cleansing destructive
agencies, as this "Sea of glass" is mingled with "fire." Sometimes the
word "sea" is literal, as when used in a simile. Generally it represents the
restless and unstable masses.
impress insuring secrecy and preventing intrusion. Also a mark or attestation of approval.
SEASON (CHRONOS)—A time (year) symbolic of a 360 year period as used in Rev. 6:11. To those
asleep in death that would only be a short or "little time." In Rev. 20:3 it
possibly is a 360 day period, a little or literal year.
or center of ruling authority. The "seats" of the 24 elders would represent the
office of "kings and priests" which they occupy (Rev. 4:4; 11:16).
of Satan and the Roman Empire which he controlled. In Rev. 9:19 the "tails" of
the "horses" were like unto "serpents"—would refer to prophets or
teachers of these doctrines who were subtle and wise as "serpents."
used; one or ones rendering service to God.
symbol of completeness, the whole of anything—literally used.
who directs or guides the denominational church—the minister or bishop of the church.
churches or religious organizations and sometimes includes pagan groups.
truth" as outlined in "Studies in the Scriptures" and includes
"judgment truths" which are to be used in harvesting the "vine of the
earth" (Rev. 14:16-20).
evident manifestation with special meaning.
of governmental authority in the New Jerusalem, the new government.
value of the papacy as represented in the numbers. It is the number of a
man. The pope wears the inscription—VICARIUS FILII DEI. This title means Vicar of the Son of God. The
Greek word LATEINOS, which means a Latin man or a citizen of Latium, when numerically
evaluated adds up to 666. Likewise the Hebrew word ROMET meaning Rome numerically
evaluated results in 666. The pope was this Latin man or we may refer to the papacy as
this "man of sin."
of symbolic burning; evidence of Gods glory; memorial of an offering.
the second period of the church which covered the time of pagan persecution. John was
probably the "angel" of this period from CE 70-313.
of a sinful city or Babylon.
SON (OF MAN)—A title of our Lord.
harmonious message, particularly of praise.
who deals with evil spirits or one who co-operates with Satan in drugging or deceiving the
means ulcers and carries the thought of decaying or dissolution.
beings, lives or persons.
of a message or proclamation.
Israel of old Reuben, Simeon and Gad camped on the south. Natural Israel will have its
tribal divisions in the kingdom. These tribes will be determined by the traits that the
individuals possess. Entrance into this holy government will be through the gate of the
tribe most suited to the individuals temperament.
SPACE (CHRONOS)—360 year period.
some instances the Spirit-begotten condition, the mind, teachings or message animation,
essence or vital part, literal spirit-beings, the holy Spirit and possibly the Lord.
seven stars are the seven messengers to the seven churches: Paul, John, Arius, Peter
Waldo, Wycliff, Luther and Charles T. Russell. The twelve apostles are also stars as is
our Lord Jesus. Teachers or messengers and ecclesiastical leaders may be referred
irritation brought on by the reformation truths.
stone—symbol of the "earnest" of the holy Spirit. Sardine stone—a red
stone approaching white or a healthy flesh color, symbol of love; idols of stone (Rev.
9:20) man-made imitations of the kingdom of God; precious stones as found on the
"woman" in Rev. 17:4 represent the claims to apostolic succession, as well as
the character adornments of the saints; as the merchandise of Babylon—character
adornments; as a "millstone" the papal church of the French
Revolution was like
that which is used in preparation of spiritual food.
Jasper stone (Rev. 21:11)—a diamond, a most precious and
glorious stone descriptive of divinity. The foundation stones of the Holy City (Rev.
21:19, 20) representing the 12 Apostles of the Lamb; jasper—Matthew; sapphire—James, the
son of Zebedee; chalcedony—John; emerald—Thomas; sardonyx—Peter; sardius—Barthelomew;
chrysolyte, Andrew; beryl—James (the son of Alphaeus); topaz, Philip;
chrysoprasus—Laebbeus (Jude); jacinth—Simon Zelotes; amethyst—Paul. The reasons for these
conclusions are based on Rocine study of character types plus a comparison to the twelve
tribes in their relation to the tabernacle.
thoroughfare, public concourse and means of access.
power of ability, vitality or force.
Gospel, the creeds and used literally at times in similes.
taken by our Lord in battle against the "beast," "false prophet" and
"the kings of the earth." Marriage supper is a celebration affair.
of God correctly or incorrectly used; also used as a carnal weapon as in Rev. 13:10.
of God. On this side the veil they are in the spiritual or religious heavens and on the
other side the veil they are in the new heavens or the new power of spiritual control.
Literally it is a tent or movable building, and this aptly illustrates the church, the
dwelling place of God.
or teachers. See Isaiah 9:14, 15. These may be false prophets or faithful prophets.
one of the "hailstones" representing hard truths is the equivalent of the light
of truth possessed by the church throughout the Gospel age. The candlestick of the
tabernacle was made of a "talent" of gold (Exodus 25:31-39). Each hailstone
combines the effectiveness of the whole Gospel on each subject.
criticism of divine justice.
church. The "temple of the tabernacle" would represent the "most holy"
of the tabernacle or the place of the divine presence. Rev. 21:22 identifies God and the
Lamb as the temple or inner sanctuary of the new government.
complete number in a civil sense—also a literal number.
TENTH (Part)—A subdivision of the Roman Empire, probably France in the days of the French
Revolution. Also used literally.
means witness. The witness inferred is Gods Law (Ex. 25:21). Gods perfect law
placed in the ark became a witness for or against Gods people. Gods law of
righteousness still stands as such a witness. No longer is Gods law written on
tables of stone but on the "fleshly" tables of our "heart." Hence the
church becomes the witness for or against the world in the age to come. "This is the
name wherewith she shall be called, The Lord our righteousness" (Jer. 33:16; 23:6).
of honors and titles that belong to God and Christ unto ones self. Also taking
temporal advantage on religious pretexts. Also withholding that which belongs to God.
literally in the sense that a thief comes stealthily and generally unobserved.
THIGH (Part)—Place of power and in this instance his power is that of the "King of
kings and Lord of lords."
THIRD (Part)—Sincere or right-hearted division. Also the word "third" is used
literally as in the "third angel" or "third trumpet" or "third
for the water of life—the truth.
of authority or rulership.
THUNDERS(INGS)—Controversies or declarations and sometimes literal when used as a simile.
perfume of a sacrifice is the traditional definition. Diaglott, App., sacrifice of
labor. Peter Waldo was the "angel" of this fourth period from CE 1160-1378.
TIME (CHRONOS)—360 years in symbolic reckoning.
a language designation, but in Rev. 16:10 the expression "gnawed their tongues" is an
expression of pain and anguish.
or testing. The root meaning—touchstone. It has the thought of severity in trial.
TRADE (Work)—Probably mission work.
or orchard of life—representing the saints who become a part of this life-giving orchard.
Another usage refers to prominent individuals in society (towering above the grass) who
were to become Christians when burnt-up to their former condition and converted.
threshing or affliction.
proclamation. When used in a simile it has a literal sense.
without the faith.
a bowl or a means of transmission—a vehicle of communication.
earthly vine professing to stem from Christ, but only an imitation of the true vine spoken
of in John 15:1-6. It represents Christendom.
Christians who are not defiled with false churches in spiritual fornication.
proclamation, message, sound, appeal or utterance.
as used it refers to the protection given by the church.
nations, multitudes and tongues" (Rev. 17:15). Used literally in similes. Also it
represents creeds, beliefs, truths, life-giving truth.
tribes of Joseph, Manasseh and Benjamin were camped on the West Side of the tabernacle.
Natural Israel in the kingdom will have tribal divisions. Entrance into the holy
government of Israel will be through the gate of the tribe most suited to the
food for the "little flock." Misapplied spiritual food.
church that broke its engagement to the Lord to commit fornication with the kings of the
WHOREMONGERS—Those who indulge in or crave spiritually illicit indulgence.
church bereft of it paramours. Marriage is an institution of God, but the marriage of the
church to the kings of the earth was not with the divine blessing. It became an act of
adultery and a symbol of her unfaithfulness to the heavenly bridegroom.
true church joined in glory with her Lord.
condition of separation from church and state. Not necessarily an organic separation, but
always a separation of spirit.
when used in a simile; otherwise the powers of spiritual control divided into four
factions. The four segments in the divided house of Satan are called the "four winds
of earth" (Rev. 7:1—directed toward controlling society) whereas in Dan. 7:2 they are
called "four winds of heaven" which in that time and place were false religions
that were used to control restless humanity in religion—hence the emergence of all the
many demon religions.
By way of contrast, these Revelation "winds" stem
from demon forces trying to control the earth and are directed toward society and the
various ideologies and religions to gain control of this fragile world—these may possibly
(1) Humanists (paganism), such as in the Commonwealth of
Russia and China but are represented heavily in western schools and governments;
(2) Mega-religionists which include all major religions and
are a strong and well-funded force under the banner of the Parliament of Religions held
first in 1893 and again in 1993 in Chicago, Illinois. World leaders realize there are over
5,000 religions in the world today and hence know that in order to form one world
government or at least some semblance of harmony requires modifying the abrasive tendency
in those religions which keep third world nations and many elements within the various
nations angry and anti-imperialistic;
(3) Islam or Muslim which is very aggressive and bent on world
domination controlling the middle east and many nations with tentacles reaching far and
(4) Papacy and Protestants allied with Europe and the Western
World but who hope to be front runners in forming a major power block in controlling the
world as it approaches Armageddon. The Bible clearly identifies the papacy and Protestants
as being foremost in gathering the nations to Armageddon together with the dragon (Rev.
All these spirit forces, while religious in nature, would
not precipitate the final conflict if they remained in the spiritual heavens controlling
the religious thinking of mankind. When the papacy and Protestants prevail over the other
world religions and succeed in forming the last triumvirate composed of the papacy,
Protestants and dragon (civil powers of the western world) they will then be in a position
to attempt to destroy both the true church and natural Israel.
These "four winds" directed toward the earth are
"held back" to create sufficient amelioration of the four world civil powers to
prevent a "whirlwind." These four civil powers are:
(1) Conservative powers (Western world of US and Europe);
(2) Totalitarian powers (which will probably include Russia
(3) Nationalistic forces (Eastern nations which may even
have some democratic governments such as Japan and Korea) and
(4) Anti-imperialistic forces (Africa and some South
These Satanic and evil spirit powers are influencing
society and have divided them into four powerful and antagonistic camps. These "four
winds" are prevented from unleashing their full fury until the saints are sealed in
However, when the papacy, Protestants and dragon are moved
to Armageddon against natural Israel they will previously
have succeeded in beheading the
"John Class." The failure of this coalition to succeed in destroying natural
Israel will signal all the evil spirit forces to sweep the world into anarchy—thereby
exposing all false religions for what they are—demonic and Satanic.
WINE (Doctrine)—Either true doctrine or false teachings Babylon uses to justify her illicit
union with the State; doctrine or teachings respecting the divine judgment against
used in crushing the "false vine," Babylon.
used in Rev. 4:8, it represents the Lords Word of the Old and New Testaments. This
text is paralleled in Isaiah 6. Two wings were used to cover the face, which would picture
the concealment of Gods person from the world; two wings were used to cover the
feet, which would picture the concealment of Gods agencies and their operations
among men; two wings were used to fly which would picture the carrying forth of Gods
plan of the ages. The Word of God serves in these three operations. In Rev. 9:9 the
"wings" of the locusts would constitute the Word of God, (Old and New
Testaments) which is the means of their progress. The "wings" in Rev. 12:14
pictures the Old and New Testaments, which are the means of carrying the "woman"
into the "wilderness" condition.
WITNESSES (WITNESS)—The Old and New Testaments testimony; also our Lord Jesus, the faithful
denotes trouble and grief. This is accomplished or brought about by reason of the past
three "trumpet" messages, and also is proclaimed when the "dragon" is
cast to the "earth.""
church true or false.
or manifestation of significance.
WORD (Logos or the Bible)—Gods written word or instructions. Also used literally.
(caused by the Reformation).
year. In Rev. 9:15, a different Greek word is used, meaning a year, repetition or
revolution and apparently refers to each day for a year—a 360 year period.
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